50 Interesting Medicine Information Every Pharmacist Need to Know

50 Interesting Medicine Information Every Pharmacist Need to Know
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50 Interesting Medicine Information Every Pharmacist Need to Know

 

The pharmacist should be able to give the information about the medicine to the patient coming to the pharmacy in a simple way so the pharmacist needs to have a lot of information about the medicine. Pharmacy is the science of medicine. In Nepal, the pharmacy profession has been overshadowed by the inability of the pharmacist to present his role well. Pharmacist should also be able to present his skill and knowledge well. Here we mention some 50 Interesting Medicine Information Every Pharmacist Need to Know, hope this information is helpful for all pharmacist

  1. The antimetabolite drug – capecitabine – can cause hand-foot syndrome, which can cause patients to lose their fingerprints. Hand-foot syndrome causes skin peeling and desquamation, which eventually leads to loss of fingerprints.
  2. Cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide can cause hemorrhagic cystitis – or bladder bleeding – due to the build-up of the toxic metabolite acrolein. To prevent hemorrhagic cystitis, patients may be administered mesna to detoxify toxic acrolein.
  3. Ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel is a combined birth control pill made up of ethinylestradiol, an estrogen and levonorgestrel a progestin. It is used for: – birth control – symptoms of menstruation – endometriosis – emergency contraception
  4. Amiodarone is structurally similar to thyroxine and also contains iodine (amIODarone). Both of these contribute to the effects of amiodarone on thyroid function – which may manifest as either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.
  5. Benznidazole is an antiparasitic drug used in the treatment of Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis. Benznidazole is a nitroimidazole that works by increasing production of free radicals to damage the parasite’s DNA.
  6. The NSAID – ketorolacshould not be used for longer than 5-days due to the risk of kidney damage or causing bleeding.
  7. The very first dose of ACE inhibitors should be taken before bed to reduce symptomatic hypotension.
  8. Lactulose reduces ammonia absorption by acidifying the stools. This is helpful in patients with liver failure in which ammonia plays a role in hepatic encephalopathy.
  9. Sumatriptan can discolor blood green due to its sulfur moiety binding to hemoglobin.
  10. Captopril – an ACE inhibitor – is associated with a metallic taste due to its thiol moiety.
  11. Isotretinoin is used to treat severe acne and some cancers, such as squamous cell carcinoma. It can cause birth defects and so particular caution is needed. Isotretinoin can also cause or worsen psychosis and aggressive tendencies.
  12. Oral ketoconazole can cause severe liver damage or adrenal insufficiency and so should be avoided in patients with acute or chronic liver disease.
  13. Intravenous doses of furosemide should be administered slowly, at a rate no greater than 4mg/min.
  14. Ulipristal acetate (Ella) is a drug used for emergency contraception (birth control) and uterine fibroids. As emergency contraception, it should be used within 120 hours of sex. For fibroids, it may be taken for up to 6-months.
  15. NSAIDs are not recommended during pregnancy, particularly during the third trimester. While NSAIDs as a class are not direct teratogens, they may cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus and kidney ADRs in the fetus.
  16. Expired tetracyclines can cause serious damage to the kidney due to the formation of a degradation product, anhydro-4-epitetracycline.
  17. Prolonged use of minocycline can lead to blue-gray staining of skin, fingernails, and scar tissue. This staining is not permanent, but can take a very long time for the skin color to return to normal; however, a muddy brown skin color in sun-exposed areas is usually permanent.
  18. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is used as a method of birth control and as a part of menopausal hormone therapy. It is also used to treat endometriosis, abnormal uterine bleeding, abnormal sexuality in males, and certain types of cancer.
  19. Patients taking MAO inhibitors should avoid foods that contain tyramine due to the risk of hypertensive crisis.
  20. Patients taking methotrexate are advised to take folic acid supplementation, but to take it on a different day to methotrexate.
  21. Children and teenagers with viral infections should not be given aspirin because of the risk of Reye’s syndrome.
  22. Tetracyclines bind to teeth and bones during fetal development, infancy, and childhood – so they should be avoided in pregnancy, breastfeeding, and children under the age of 12. Side effects of tetracyclines include: – enamel hypoplasia – tooth discoloration
  23. Ciprofloxacin should be avoided with the muscle relaxant drug, tizanidine, as the fluoroquinolone drug can significantly increase levels of tizanidine.
  24. Haloperidol is used off-label for the treatment of intractable hiccups.
  25. Aminoglycosides work by binding irreversibly to the 30S subunit of bacterial ribosomes – inhibiting protein synthesis. They are bactericidal in effect. As aminoglycosides enter microbes via oxygen-dependent processes, they are ineffective against anaerobic organisms.
  26. As with penicillins, cephalosporins work as cell wall synthesis inhibitors. They also contain a beta-lactam ring that prevents peptidoglycan cross-linkage and therefore causes a disruption in the osmotic gradient – leading to cell lysis and death.
  27. Dopamine is used to treat patients with very low blood pressure or who have a slow heart rate that is causing symptoms.
  28. Octreotide is an octapeptide that mimics natural somatostatin pharmacologically, though it is a more potent inhibitor of growth hormone, glucagon, and insulin than the natural hormone.
  29. Co-administration of lidocaine with epinephrine prolongs the local anesthetic effect.
  30. Metformin should be withheld during acute alcohol intoxication, where it may precipitate lactic acidosis.
  31. To prevent vitamin K deficiency in neonates, phytomenadione 1mg IM is given as a single dose (lower doses in preterm neonates).
  32. Mupirocin is a topical antibacterial drug used to treat skin infections such as impetigo or folliculitis. It should not be used for more than 10 days. Mupirocin works as a protein synthesis inhibitor through its binding to isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase in Gram-positive organisms.
  33. Side effects with vancomycin include thrombophlebitis, red man syndrome (upper body rash), nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Risk of nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity increases when vancomycin is taken alongside aminoglycosides, loop diuretics or ciclosporin.
  34. Tranexamic acid is an anti-fibrinolytic drug used to treat or prevent excessive blood loss. It is a synthetic analog of the amino acid, lysine. Side effects include changes in color vision and blood clots.
  35. Once daily corticosteroid treatment should be taken in the morning, to mimic the natural circadian rhythm and reduce insomnia.
  36. Grapefruit juice should be avoided with statins – except pravastatin or rosuvastatin.
  37. Inhaled corticosteroids – such as beclomethasone and fluticasone – can cause oral candidiasis. They can also cause a hoarse voice and, in COPD, they can increase the risk of pneumonia. Rinsing/gargling after administration reduces risk of sore mouth/hoarse voice.
  38. When alcohol is consumed with metronidazole, it can produce a disulfiram-like reaction leading to nausea/vomiting, headache, abdominal pain, and flushing.
  39. Green-leafy vegetables are high in vitamin K and so interfere with the anticoagulant effects of warfarin. Patients taking warfarin need to ensure the INR value does not go out of the therapeutic range. This involves limiting the consumption of green-leafy vegetables.
  40. Ispaghula husk, methylcellulose, and sterculia are all examples of drugs used to treat constipation. They are examples of bulk-forming laxatives.
  41. Benzodiazepines safest in patients with liver disease include lorazepam, oxazepam, and temazepam.
  42. Long-term use of metformin can cause vitamin B12 deficiency.
  43. Elixirs are sweetened hydro-alcoholic solutions that taste pleasant, are relatively stable, and which are easy to prepare. The concentration of alcohol is typically between 3 percent and 25 percent.
  44. “Triple therapy” is used to treat Helicobacter pylori infection. It’s composed of a proton-pump inhibitor, a macrolide (clarithromycin 500mg), and a penicillin (such as amoxicillin 1g) – twice daily for 7-14 days. Patients allergic to penicillins may be given metronidazole
  45. Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor used to PREVENT acute attacks of gout; to prevent uric acid and calcium oxalate renal stones; and to prevent hyperuricemia and tumor lysis syndrome associated with chemotherapy
  46. Activated charcoal is used to reverse the toxic effects of many orally administered substances. To be effective, it should be taken within a short period following poisoning. If aspirated to the lung, activated charcoal can cause pneumonitis.
  47. To prevent esophageal damage, bisphosphonates – such as alendronic acid – should be taken on an empty stomach, 30 minutes before breakfast, whilst remaining upright and taken with a full glass of water.
  48. Amiodarone can cause thyroid abnormalities, including hypo and hyperthyroidism. This is due to its iodine content – amIODarone, and structural similarities to thyroid hormone.
  49. Acetaminophen (or paracetamol / APAP) was first discovered in 1877 and has since gone on to become one of the world’s most widely used medicines in the treatment of pain and fever.
  50. Benzodiazepines are compounds whose chemical structure is a fusion between a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. Through this fundamental structure they exert their anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative, hypnotic and muscle relaxant properties at their target receptor.

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