80 Pharmacology Important terms Every Pharmacy Student Should Know 

80 Pharmacology Important terms Every Pharmacy Student Should Know 
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80 Pharmacology Important terms Every Pharmacy Student Should Know 

Pharmacology is the vital subject in all medical studies, as it plays crucial role in Pharmacy education, here are 80 Pharmacology terms that all of us must be familiar, so it is better to gain good and conceptual understanding in this subject.It can be very helpful to all the students stuyding Diploma in pharmcy as well as Bachelor in Pharmacy.Pharmacology is the subject that carries heavy marks in various competitive exams in Nepal & other country. The 80 pharmacology terms can be one of the best medium to build up your Pharmacology knowledge.

  1. Acute:- Acute conditions are severe and sudden in onset. This could describe anything from a broken bone to an asthma attack
  2. Absorption:- Absorption is a process of movement the drug from its site of administration into the systemic circulation for producing any of effect. This effect is called Pharmacodynamic effect and it may be either desirable or undesirable.
  3. Adsorbent:- Adsorbent are the finely powdered, inert and insoluble solid capable of binding to their surface noxious and irritant substance. They are also called protective because they afford physical protection of the skin or mucosa.
  4. Agonist:- Agonist are the agent which activates the receptor to produce an effect similar to the of the physiological signal molecule.
  5. Antagonist:- Antagonists are agent which prevent the action of agonist on a receptor or the subsequent response, but does not have any effect of its own.
  6. Bioequivalence:- Two preparation of a drug are considered bioequivalent when the rate and extent of bioavailability of the drug from them is not significantly different under suitable test condition.
  7. Bioavailability:- Bioavailability is the rate and extent of drug absorbed from its dosage form and that fraction which is available to give biological action. Drug having higher bioavailability will give higher effect.
  8. Biological barriers:- Biological barriers are the control system of body that restrict the entry of drug to any specific compartment or are of body from either site of administration or from systemic circulation. Example- BBB- Blood Brain Barrier, BPB- Blood Placental Barrier, BTB- Blood Testicular Barrier.
  9. Biological Membrane:- Membrane means a barrier layer, and biological means in living organism, so biological membrane is a barrier layer in living organism which allows the passage of drug molecule or other molecule according to their polarity and molecular size. This is a bilayer of about 100 A Thick.
  10. Biotransformation:- Biotransformation or metabolism is a process of conversion of complex molecule into simplex molecule. Biotransformation means chemical alteration of the drug in the body. It is needed to render non polar (Lipid Soluble) compounds polar (Lipid insoluble) so that they do not reabsorbed in the renal tubules and are excreted.
  11. Blood Brain Barrier:- Blood Brain Barrier is highly selective barrier having very tight junction of specialized cell which regulate the entry of drug molecule. This only allows the highly lipid soluble molecule to prevent non lipid soluble drugs like- streptomycin, and Neostigmine. Important Example- Dopamine does not cross Blood Brain Barrier but its precursor Levodopa can cross BBB.
  12. Catabolism:- Catabolism is the process of conversion of complex molecule into simple molecule by the various process like- oxidation, reduction, and hydrolysis. This result into the production of energy and this produced energy is then used for completion of body function.
  13. Clearance:- The clearance of the drug is the process of theoretical volume of plasma from which the drug is completely removed in the unit time. It is calculated by- rate of elimination divided by plasma concentration.
  14. Clinical trials:- Clinical trials are performed after getting enough satisfactory result from preclinical trials. It is a prospective ethically designed investigation in human subject to objectively discover or examine or verify the result of two or more therapeutic measurement. Clinical trials may be conducted in healthy volunteers or patient volunteers.
  15. Combination Therapy:- The combination therapy involves utilization of two or more than two drugs to get desired effect. This is usually done when one drug is not enough or satisfactory for the treatment of any disease or disorder.
  16. Contraindication:- In pharmacology the term contraindication means a condition at which one drug is not allowed to take in the presence of other specific drug, because one drug may alter of change the effect of another and that changes may be toxic and fatal too. Example- Rifampicin is contraindicated for the woman who is taking oral contraceptive pills.
  17. Depolarization:- The inward flow of sodium ions increases the concentration of positively charged cations in the cell and causes depolarization
  18. Drug Action:- It is the initial combination of the drug with its receptor resulting in a conformational changes in the latter (In case of agonist) or prevention of conformational changes, through exclusion of the agonist (in case of antagonist)
  19. Drug Allergy:- It is an immunologically mediated reaction producing stereo type symptoms which are unrelated to the Pharmacodynamic profile of the drug, generally occur even with much smaller dose and have different time course of onset and duration. This is also called drug hypersensitivity.
  20. Drug Resistance:- It refers to tolerance of microorganism to inhibitory action of antimicrobials. Example- staphylococci to penicillin.
  21. Efficacy:- In pharmacology, efficacy (Emax) is the maximum response achievable from an applied or dosed agent, for instance, a small molecule drug
  22. Excretion:- Once the drug gets absorbed-distributed-Metabolized it needs to get eliminated through various possible routes. Excretion refers to the passage of drug out of the systemically absorbed drug. Drugs and their metabolites are eliminated mainly by- Renal, faeces, Exhaled air, Saliva and milk and somehow in sperm.
  23. Expiry Date:- Expiry dates of any medicine are the time periods at which it is believed that there will be a decrease in the therapeutically effectiveness and increase in the undesirable effects.
  24. First Line Drug:- First line drugs are those drugs that have high efficacy as well as low toxicity and they are used routinely.
  25. First Pass Metabolism:- First pass metabolism refers to metabolism of a drug during its passage from site of absorption into the systemic circulation. All orally administered drugs are exposed to drug metabolizing enzyme in the intestinal mucosa and liver. (they reach first to portal vein)
  26. Hypnotic:- A drug that produces a state clinically identical to sleep by means of action in the central nervous system
  27. Iatrogenic Disease:-  These are also called drug induced disease and physician induced disease too. These are functional disturbance caused by drugs which persist even after the offending drugs has withdrawn and largely eliminated. Example- peptic ulcer by Salicylates and corticosteroids. Hepatitis by Isoniazide.
  28. Idiosyncrasy:- It is genetically determined abnormal reactivity to a chemical. The drug interact with some unique feature of the individual, not found in majority of subjects, and produce the uncharacteristic
  29. In vivo:- In vivo means- inside the cell or body. This is the study of new or established drug in the animal itself; here complete animal is used for the evaluation. Example- Study or Antisecratory action, antiulcer drugs.
  30. Interaction:- Interaction means reaction with one or more of the substance, this substance may be another drug or food present in stomach. Interaction may alter the effect of medicine, and this alteration may be in stimulation or depression.
  31. Intolerance:- It is the appearance of characteristic toxic effects of a drug in an individual at a therapeutic dose. It is a converse of tolerance and indicates a low threshold of individual to the action of drug.
  32. Invitro:- Invitro means- outside the cell or body, Outside of the body will be easily to understand. In this method any part of organ cell is isolated from the body and intact on the organ bath and then the effects of drug is observed by contraction and relaxation.
  33. Ion Channels:- Ion channels are made of two common terms Ions- The charged elements (Na+) and Channels means way or path to cross. So ion channels are those paths from which various ions move in an out. Drug may affect the ion channels either by opening or closing so that the status of ion channel may change accordingly.
  34. Lipophilic Drug :- Those drug which do lipid love in nature. These drugs are highly soluble in lipid and may cross the barriers of body like- BBB, BPB, BTB. This is also known as hydrophobic.
  35. Loading Dose:- This is the single or few quickly repeated doses given in the beginning to attend target concentration rapidly. Loading dose is given at a time to boost the effect of drug so that it may initiate the response.
  36. Maintenance dose:- This is one that is to be repeated at specified intervals after the attainment of target concentration so to maintain the same by balancing elimination. In a simple way it is a dose required to maintain the concentration of drug throughout the specified time intervals by administrating drug accordingly.
  37. Mechanism of action:- The complete and step by steps of action followed by the drug by which it produce biological action. Example- Diuretic- Increase urine formation by inhibiting reabsorption process.
  38. Metabolism:- Metabolism or biotransformation is a process of conversion of complex molecule into simplex molecule and biotransformation is also conversion of one form to the other form like from active state to inactive state and inactive state to active or less active state.
  39. Metabolites:- Metabolites are the newly formed chemical structure of drug after the metabolism or biotransformation process; basically metabolite may be in active, inactive form depending upon the metabolism.
  40. Microsomal Enzyme:- Microsomal Enzyme is located in smooth endoplasmic reticulum, primarily in liver and kidney, intestinal mucosa and intestine. They catalyze most of the oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis and Glucuronide conjugation.
  41. Multiple drug therapy:- To deal with the drug resistance microorganism a special combination or therapy is used which include more than two drugs. Example- use of Rifampin, dapson, and clofazimine in case of TB treatment.
  42. Mutagenisity:- It refers to the capacity of drug to cause genetic defects and cancer respectively. Usually oxidation of the drug results in the production of reactive intermediate which affects gene and may cause structural changes, in the chromosome.
  43. Neurotransmitters:- Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemical which carry special functional signal and transmit it from one cell to another cell by passing the synaptic cells called pre junction and post junction.
  44. Non Proprietary:- It is the name accepted by competent body, authority, or in a simple way it is the name of active chemical entity without its brand name or manufacturer’s name.
  45. Onset of Action:- Onset of action is the time taken by the drug to produces it effect. Onset of action is dependent on route of drug administration; oral route will have slow onset of action as compare to t intravenous route.
  46. Orphan Drugs:- These are the drugs or biological products for diagnosis treatment and prevention of rare disease or condition or a more common disease for which there is no reasonable exception that the cost of developing and marketing it will be recovered from the sales of the drug.
  47. Parenteral:- Parenteral administration means administration of the drug other than Enteral route, Enteral means oral so Parenteral means other than oral route, this include IV, IM, SC, topical, rectal and vaginal etc.
  48. Partial Agonist:- An agent who activates receptors to produce a sub maximal effect but antagonize the effect of full agonist.
  49. Pharamcogenomics:- Pharamcogenomics is the use of genetic information to guide the choice of the drug and dose on an individual basis. It intended to identify individual who are either more likely or less likely to respond to a drug, as well as those who require altered dose of certain drugs. The main aim is to attain a specific dose for an individual person.
  50. Pharmacodynamic:- Pharmacodynamic is a study of drug’s effect on our body. Means it is a study of- What does Drug do to the Body. This includes- Desired and Undesired effect from drug.
  51. Pharmacogenetic:- Pharmacogenetic is the branch of medical science which deals with the genetic influence on drug action as well as on drug handling by the body.
  52. Pharmacokinetic:- Pharmacokinetic is the study of body response for any particular drug which has taken for any reason. This include- Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME)
  53. Pharmacology:- Pharmacology is complete study of Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic profile of drug, means its study of drugs effect on body and body response for the drug.
  54. Pharmacovigilance:- Pharmacovigilance has been defined by the WHO as the science and activities related to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse drug effect (ADR) or any other drug related problems.
  55. Clinical trial Phase:- Clinical trial Phase I on about 20 to 80 subject for the determination of human pharmacology and safety of drug, Clinical trial Phase II on about 100-500 patients for the assessment of therapeutic exploration and dose ranging, Clinical trial Phase III on about 500-3000 patient with the objective of therapeutic confirmation or comparison, Clinical trial Phase IV After the drug has been marketed for general use, this trial begins for the collection of response either in form of pharmacovigilance or simply post market surveillance.
  56. Photosensitivity:- It is a cutaniouse reaction resulting from drug induced sensitization of the skin to UV radiation. This may of two types- phototoxic and photo allergic.
  57. Placebo:- This is an inert substance which is given instead of medicine. It works by psychological rather than pharmacological. It produce believe that the medicine is working well and patient recover soon.
  58. Plasma half life:- The Plasma half life of a drug is a time taken for its plasma concentration to be reduced to half of its original concentration. In other simple word it’s a time at which concentration of drug become half.
  59. Plasma protein binding:- It is a process of binding of free drug molecule with the plasma protein present in the blood. Most drugs possess the physiological affinity for plasma protein. Highly plasma protein binding are largely restricted to vascular compartment because protein bound drug behave as macromolecule and they are not able to cross the membrane.
  60. Polypharmacy:- Ingestion of more than one drug at a time
  61. Potency:- Potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
  62. Preclinical trials:- Preclinical trials involve the study of safety and efficacy of newly invented drugs on experimental animal as per their similarity with human. Preclinical trials provide the basic ground for the conduction of clinical trials on human.
  63. Receptors:- Receptors are the macromolecule or binding site located either on the surface of cell membrane or inside the cell that serve to recognize the signal molecule/drug and initiate the biological response for it, but they don’t have their own specific functions.
  64. Redistribution:- Redistribution is a process of again distribution of drug from one distributed site to another less or not distributed site. Highly lipid soluble drugs get initially distributed to organ with high blood flow. For example brain, heart, kidney, and then later to less vascular but more bulky tissue take up the drug. Redistribution result in termination of drug action. Greater the lipid solubility of the drug greater the redistribution.
  65. Secondary effects:- These are the indirect consequence of a primary action of a drug for example- suppression of bacterial flora by tetracycline paves the way for super infection, corticosteroids weaken host defense mechanism so that latent tuberculosis get activated.
  66. Sensitivity:- The ability of a population, an individual or a tissue, relative to the abilities of others, to respond in a qualitatively normal fashion to a particular drug dose. The smaller the dose required producing an effect, the more sensitive is the responding system.
  67. Side Effect:- Side effect as name indicates it is the side wise effect along with main effect of drug which was taken intentionally. Side effects are often associated with the therapeutic effect and it is well known in advance prior to drug administration.
  68. Standard dose:- That dose will be called Standard dose which is appropriate for most of the patients, individual variations are minor or the drug has wide safety margin so that large enough dose can be given to cover that.
  69. Site of Action:- Location at which drug exert its therapeutic effect often a specific drug receptor.
  70. Super Infection:- Super infection refers to the appearance of new infection as a result of antimicrobial therapy. This is commonly associated with the use of- tetracycline, Chlourmphenicol, Ampicillin. Super infection is more common with the compromised immune system.
  71. Syndrome:- The aggregate of sign and symptoms associated with any morbid process those results in to a disease.
  72. Synergism:- When the action of one drug is facilitated or increase by the other, they are said to be synergistic. In a synergistic pair both the drug can have action in same direction or given alone may be inactive but still enhance the action of the other when given together.
  73. Teratogenicity:- It refers to the capacity of drug to cause foetal abnormalities when administered to the pregnant woman. This may cause disturbance in the organogenesis.
  74. Therapeutic index:- The therapeutic index of a drug is a ratio of the dose that produces toxicity to the dose that produces a clinically desired effective response in a population of individuals. Therapeutic dose = TD50/ED50
  75. Threshold Drugs:- A dose of drug just sufficient to produce a pre-selected effect. Frequently, and improperly, restricted to the dose just sufficient to produce a minimal detectable effect.
  76. Tolerance:- It refers to the requirement of higher dose of a drug to produce a given response. In other words tolerance means phenomenon in which drug does not produce the same effect as it was used to produce even it was taken at the first time, and now more dose is required to get the same response as earlier.
  77. Toxic effect:- Toxic effect is the result of excessive pharmacological action of drug due to over dosage or prolonged use. Over usage may be intentional or relative related with therapeutic dose. The effects are predictable and dose related.
  78. Toxicology:- Toxicology is the branch of science which involves the study of poisonous effects of drug and other chemical agent like- household, environmental and industrial pollutants. With emphasis of detection and treatment of that particular poisons.
  79. Withdrawal symptoms:- When the addictive substance is withdraw or removed from the addictive person suddenly, he or she showed some characteristic behavior that may be even dangerous for the life; all those symptoms are collectively called as withdrawal symptoms.
  80. Zero order kinetics:- The rate of elimination remains constant irrespective of drug concentration, clearance decrease with the increase in concentration, or a constant amount of drug eliminated in unit time. Example- Ethanol.
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