Nepal Pharmacy Council License Exam Syllabus Diploma Pharmacy
Nepal Pharmacy Council License Exam Syllabus Diploma Pharmacy
Social Pharmacy & Public health
Concept of health: Define health. Differentiate promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative.
Principles and scope of health education. Describe scope of health education, health education needs related to pharmacy conducting educational diagnosis survey.
Health education methods: different methods for providing health education.
Individual method: Interview and Counseling.
Group method: Group discussion, Role-play, Brain storming, Work-shop etc.
Mass Method: Lecture, exhibition, Advantages and disadvantages of each method.
Health education media: audio-visual aids. Different health education media. List advantages and disadvantages of each media. Criteria for the selection of media. Planning of health education: concept and importance of planning. Health education program planning process. Health education program implementation. Health education program evaluation and differentiate formative and summative evaluation. Health education program evaluation process.
Factors affecting health education: factor-affecting learning. Biological factors such as condition of sensory organs. Physical factors. Socio-culture factors. Physiological factors. Learning: Different way of leaning such as; by hearing, by seeing, by doing, by Repetition, and by imitation.
Health care system
History of health care delivery system in Nepal. Health care delivery system in Nepal. Traditional health care – Dhami, J hankri, Lama, Guvaju.
Ayurvedic, Homeopathy, Unani. – Acupuncture/naturop athy.
Modern health care – National Health Policy. Nation al Health Sector Support Program . Millenium development goal.
Organogram of Ministry of Health (MoH). Explain healthcare management models. Process of patient care in community.
Primary Health Care: Alma-ata Declaration, concept of Primary Health Care. Principles of Primary Health Care. Elements of Primary Health Care. Implementation of PHC (in terms of WHO and government of Nepal). Role of pharmacist of PHC.
Source of vector/vector carrying diseases
Malaria/Filiarisis/Kala-azar/Influenza 1 & 2/Dengue Fever/Japanese Encephalitis.
Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics
Cardiovascular drugs: Describe Hypertension, Angina, Congestive cardiac Failure, Arrhythmia, Coagulation, Hyperlipidemia, Myocardial infarction. Classifications, General mechanism of action, use, side effect, contraindication, precaution and dose of commonly used Diuretics and anti-diuretics: Frusemide, Hydrochlorothiazide, Spironolactone, Mannitol Acetazolamide.
Beta Blockers: Atenolol. Calcium channel Blockers : Amlodipine, Verapamil, Nifedipine, ACE inhibitors: Enalapril, Ramepril. ACE-II inhibitors : Losartan, Telmesortan. Cardiac glycosides: Digoxin.
Lipid lowering: Atorvastatin, Simvastatin, Clofibrate, Fenofibrate.
Anti-platelet: Aspirin Anticoagulant: Heparin, Warfarin, Enaxoprin
Histamine and antihistamine: Classifications, general mechanism of action, use, side effect, contraindication, precaution and dose of commonly used
Antihistamines: Chlorpheniramine, Pheniramine, Cetrizine, Levocetrizine, Fexofenadine, Loratidine, Promethazine. Decongestants: Local: Oxymetazoline, Xylometazoline, Nafazoline. Systemic: Phenylepherine, Pseudoepherine.
Hormones and related drugs: Classifications, General pharmacological actions, mechanism of action, use, side effect, contraindication, precaution and dose of commonly used drugs in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism: Thyroxine, Propylthiouracil carbimazole. Anti-diabetic drugs: Insulin, Glimeperide, Metformine, Sitagliptin, Piglitazone, Glipizide, Glilencamide. Glucagon, corticosteroids: Betamethasone, Dexamethasone, Hydrocertisone.
Gonadol hormones and their antagonist: Testesterone, Progesteron, Estrogen, Tamoxifen, Mitotane and oxytocin.
Drugs acting on peripheral nervous system: Classification, General pharmacological actions, mechanism of action, use, side effect, contraindication, precaution and dose of commonly used: general anaesthetics: Nitrous, Oxide, Halothane, Ketamine, Propotol. Sedative, hypnotics: Diazepam, Alprazolam, Zolpidem, Penobarbitone, Chloridiazepoxide. Antiepileptic drugs: Carbamazeprin, Prenytoin, Valproice Acid. Antiparkinsonian drugs: Levodopa, Carbidopa. Opoid analgesics and antagonists: Morphine, Pethadine. Antipsychotic, antianxiety, antimanic and antidepressant drugs: Fluoxetine, Amitryptylline, Chlorpromazine, Haloperidol, pharmacological actions and guidelines for safe drinking of ethyl and methyl alcohol and management of migraine headache: Ergometrine.
List different types of Eye, ear and nasal preparation:
Toxicology with emphasis on organophopshoous, paracetamol, barbiturates and opoid poisoning.
List of life saving and emergency drugs: Classification according to the condition they used:
Drugs used in Anaphylactic shock, Drugs used in Myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock, Drugs used in peripheral circulatory collapse, Drugs and status epilepticus, Medicines for Hypertensive Crisis and Antisnake venom for snake bite.
Urinary acidifiers and alkalizers: N2PO4, NaH2PO4, NaCl, NaH2PO4 + NaCl, K3PO4
Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Introduction to Pharmacognosy. Classification of crude drugs. Complementary and alternative system of medicine and its different dosage forms (focusing on Ayurveda and Homeopathic system of medicine).
Method of cultivation of plants. Collection, drying and storage of crude drugs. Introduction of parts of plants and Quality control and evaluation of crude drugs. Phytochemistry: Alkaloids, Glycosides, Voltile oil, Tannin and Fixed oil. Pharmacognostic study of crude drugs- Microscopical features of stramonium, Ephedra, Digitalis, senna, Chiraita, Fennel, Clove, Mentha, Ginger.
Pharmaceuticals Acid (focusing on source, properties, and uses) Starch, Gum Acacia, Tragacanth, Agar, Cod liver oil, Gelatin, Beeswax, Homey and Liquid paraffin.
Status of medicinal plants of Nepal: vernacular name, English name, botanical name, family, distribution, habitat, parts used and morphological characteristics of following ten medicinal plants of economic important found in Nepal. Panchaunle (Dactylorhiza hatagirea), Sugandhakokila (Cinnamomum glaucescens), Yarshagumba (Cordycep sinensis), Harro (Terminalia chebula), Pipla (Piper longum), Barro (Terminalia balerica), Satawari (Asparagus racemosus), Timur (Zantoxylum armatum), Gurjo (Tinospora sinensis) and Amala (Emblica officinalis).
Acid, Base, Buffer, Antioxidants – HCl, NaOH, Citric acid, Sod. Benzoate, Sod Metabisulphide.
Chemotherapy and neoplastic drugs: Mechanism of action, use, side effect, contraindication, precaution and dose of commonly used anticancer drugs: Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, Doxorubicin, Bleomycine, Taxol, Vincristine, Cyterabize, Cisplatin) handling of anticancer drugs.
Miscellaneous drugs: Classifications, mechanism of action, use, side effect, contraindication, precaution and dose of commonly used immunosuppressant application of gene therapy.
Drugs acting on skin and mucous membrane
Use and preparations of following: Demulcents (pectin, glycerine, honey, Liquorice, Fenugreek). Emollients (Greasy Ointment bases, Aloe Vera, Castor Oil, Coconut Oil). Adsorbents and protectives (kaolin, Calamine, Titanium dioxide, Talc, Activated Dimethicone). Astringents (Alum, Zinc Sulphate). Irritants and counter irritants (Capsaicin, Menthol, amphor, Methyl salycilate, clove oil). Keratolytics (salicylic acid, Sulphur), antiseborrheics (Selenium sulphide, zinc pyrithinone), antipsoriasis (Crude coal tar, retinoids), drugs for acne vulgaris (Erythromycin, Tretinoin, Benzoyl peroxide), antiseptic and disinfectant with their classification and spectrum of activity (Alcohol, lodine, Potassium permanganate, Chlorhexidine Gluconate, Hydrogen peroxide, Formaldehyde, Sodium Hypochloride and Cetrimide) drugs for scabies and pediculosis (Gamma benzene Hexachloride, malathion, Pyrethrins), single versus combination therapy for management of skin disease.
Nutritional Supplement: Classification, sources and roles of commonly used vitamins: B1, B2, B6, B12, sources and therapy of iron and common minerals in the body, management of anemia
Gastrointestinal Agents– HCl, Al(OH)3, Charcoal, Kaolin.
Topical Agents – Talc, H 2O2, KMnO4, Povidine Iodine, ZnSO4.
Major Intra & extra Cellular electrolytes – Acid base balance, Replacement Therapy, NaCl, KCl, Ringer Lactate, ORS.
Nomenclature of organic compounds with special reference to heterocyclic system. Explain the numbering system different position of benzene ring.
Structure, storage, handling and quality assurance of the molecules of following organic drugs:
Local and Systemic Antimicrobials: Antiseptic & disinfectants, Sulpha Drugs & Antileprotics, Penicillins and Cephalosporins, Chloramphenicol and Tetracycline: Aminoglycosides and Macrolides: Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones. Antitubercular medicines: Anti-amoebic and Anthelmentics,
Introduction to Psychotropic Agents: Chlorpromazine, Haloperidol, Dizepam, Lorazepam, Nitrazepam. Amitryptilline, Imipramine, Alprazolam, Carbamazepine, Phenytoin, sodium Valproate, Trihexyphenydyl. Drugs acting in CNS, ANS: halothane, Methohexital, Trichloroethylene, ketamine. Lignocaine, Benzocaine, Ethyl Chloride.
Adrenergic Drugs, Adrenaline, Noradrenaline, Salbutamol, Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine.
Define Cholinergics: Neostigmine, Pyridostigmine, Pilocarpine
Cholinergic Antagonist: Atropine sulphate group including Tropicamide.
Cardiovascular drugs: Frusomide, Amlodepine, Atenolol, Enalapril and Aspirin. Thiazides, Urea, Mannitol, Nitrate anti-anginals, Quinidine, Procainamide, Heparin, Warfarin, Dypyridamol, Ticlopidine, Aspirin, Ethamsylate, Cumarins, Digitalis, Simvastatin.
Hormones & related drugs: Insulin, Chlorpropamide, and dexamethasone. Gliblenklamide, Metformin, Phenformin, Rosiglitazone, Thyroxine, Carbimazole, Methylthiouracil, Steroids (Dexamethasone, Prednisolone, Betamethasone), Testosterone, estrogens and Progesterone.
Histamines and Antihistamines:Chlorpheniramine and Cetrizine, Pheniramine, Diphenhydramine, Promethazine, Cyproheptadine.
Anti neoplastic: Cisplatin, Mercaptopurine, Fluorouracil, Tamoxifen, Vincristine, Taxol, Doxorubicin and mitomycin.
Vitamin, Minerals & enzyme (roles and deficiency): Vitamin A, Vitamin B group, Vit. C, Vitamin D, Niacinamide, D-panthenol, Iron salts and iron soluble polymers, Folic acid. Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Calcium, Zn, Cu, Mn, Diastase, Pepsine, Pancreatin, Serratopeptidase, Chemotrypsine.
Diagnostics: BaSO4, Iopanoic acid, Propylidone and Meglumine.
Concentration of a solution: Molarity, molality, mole fraction, percent Volume, percent mass, PPM, PPB, normality.
Introduction to Chemical Equilibria: Types of Equilibria. Bronsted definition of Acids and Bases. Monoprotic Acid-Base Equilibria. Distinction between Strong Acids and Strong Bases. Distinction between Weak Acids and Weak Bases. Volumetric Analysis and Titration Principles. Monoprotic Acid-Base Titration. Polyprotic acid-base equilibria and titrations. Includes: Neutralisation titration, Redox titration (Permangnometric titration, iodometric and iodimetric titration), Precipitation titration, complexometric titration with examples and applications)
Different pharmaceutical preparations and dosage forms: Define and classify Tablet, Capsules, Aromatic Water, Cachets, colloids, Creams, Draughts, Dusting Powders, Dentifrices, Ear Drops, Elixir, Emulsions, Enemas, Eye Drops, Eye Lotions, Gargles, Gels, Glycerines, Granules, Effervescent Granules, Implants, Infusions, Inhalations, Injections, Insufflations, Irrigations, Jellies, Linctuses, Liniments, Lotions, Lozenges, Mixtures, Mouthwashes, Nasal Drops, Ointments, Ophthalmic Ointments, Paints, paste, Pessaries, Powders, Solutions, Dispersible Tablets, Chewable tablets, Spirits, Sprays, Suppositories, Suspensions, Syrups, Tinctures. Introduction to veterinary dosage forms.
Pharmacopeias and formularies used in Nepal: Brief introduction about pharmacopoeias and their uses. Introduce British Pharmacopoeia, United States Pharmacopoeia, Indian Pharmacopoeia, British Pharmaceutical Codex, Japanese pharmacopoeia, International Pharmacopoeia, European Pharmacopoeia etc.
Weight and measures: Classify weight and measure and convert from one system to another and one unit to another. Percentage and ratio strength, allegation method and isotonic solutions.
Processing and manufacturing: Communication, Size Separation, Mixing and Homogenization, Filtration and clarification, Extraction, heat process, Distillation, Drying.
Rheology and flow of liquid, surface and interfacial tension, Dispersed System.
Dosage forms: Monophasic liquid dosage form, Biphasic dosage forms, Solid dosage forms,
Semisolid dosage forms, parenterals, Aerosols. Packing of pharmaceutical dosage form and Biological products. Stability of pharmaceutical products. Introduction to Cosmetics. Concept of bioavailability and biopharmaceutics.
Clinical Pharmacy & Hospital Pharmacy
Introduction: Hospital and its function: classify hospitals based on various criteria, organization, management and delivery system in Nepal. Hospital Pharmacy: Functions and objectives of hospital pharmacy services. Layout design of hospital with flow of materials and men. Regulatory and professional requirement for hospital pharmacy practice and requirements and abilities required for hospital pharmacists.
Drug distribution system in hospital: Explain drug distribution system in hospitals with emphasis on: Outpatient services. In-patient services. Types of services. Discussion of unit dose system. Floor/ward stock system. Satellite pharmacy system. Central sterile services. Bedside pharmacy.
Extemporaneous compounding and dispensing: Requirements for compounding: Personnel, Sources for chemicals and drugs, Equipments (Measuring, Moulding, Mixing, Packaging), Location of compounding area and Source of information. Expiry date of different preparations. Concept of Total Parenteral nutrients.
Medicine and Therapeutic Committee: Hospital Pharmacy Service Guidelines 2070, Medicine and Therapeutic committees (Goals, objectives, structure, principle and Functions of the MTC) Formulary (formulary list (essential medicines list), formulary manual, Standard treatment guidelines (STGs))
General concept on Surgical and Sterilization: Understanding of Surgical dressing like cotton, gauze, bandages and adhesive tapes, Sutures, I.V. sets, Ryle’s tubes, Catheters, Syringes. Health Accessories. Sterilization and CSSR.
Store management: Stock maintenance and Demand. Materials (drugs including narcotics, non-drugs, consumables), Medicine cycle, ABC analysis, VED analysis, FSN analysis, FIFO, FEFO.
Application of computers in Pharmacy: Explain application of computers in maintenance of records, inventory control, medication monitoring, drug information and data storage and retrieval in hospital and retail pharmacy establishments.
Clinical Pharmacy: Introduction to clinical pharmacy practice. Demographic information, Dietary information, Social habits, Current and Past Prescription Medications, Current and Past Non-prescription. Medication Allergies, ADR. Knowledge Common Laboratory and Diagnostic tests. Drug interactions: Mechanism of drug interaction, details of drug-drug interaction (pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics) with reference to analgesics, diuretics, cardiovascular drugs, Gastro-intestinal agent, vitamins and hypoglycemic agents. Drug-food interaction.
Adverse drug reaction: Adverse drug reactions, Type of ADR, ADR monitoring and pharmacovigilence. Drug induced diseases and teratogenicity.
Responding to Symptoms: Disease, manifestations and pathophysiology including salient symptoms to understand the disease like Tuberculosis, Hepatitis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Cardio-vascular disease, Epilepsy, Diabetes, Peptic Ulcer, Hypertension, COPD, Asthma, Gout, Thyroid Disease, Psoriasis,Cold and flu, Cough, sore throat, allergic rhinitis, mouth ulcers, motion sickness, constipation, diarrhea, acne, cold sores, warts, headache, musculoskeletal problems, women’s health (dysmenorrhea, ECP) common eye and ear problems.
Drug Monitoring: Importance of monitoring and the Techniques of monitoring.
Dispensing pharmacy: Prescriptions: parts of prescription and its handling steps, orient with Latin terms commonly used, describe modern methods of prescribing and solve numerical involved in dispensing.
Pharmaceutical Incompatibilities in prescriptions: Physical, chemical and therapeutic incompatibilities. Posology: dose and dosage form, describe the factors influencing dose, and calculate doses on the basis of age, sex and surface area.
Community Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence
Community Pharmacy: Profession & professionalism. Pharmacy as profession, role of community pharmacy in the society, Primary Health Care, public Health and role of community pharmacist. Different steps of dispensing of prescription and dispensing techniques. Extemporaneous dispensing. Labeling of dispensed products. Patient counseling. Patient compliance, patient profile. Drug profile.
Management of a community pharmacy: Establishing and financing a community pharmacy. Development of the business plan. Pharmacy layout design. Legal structure of ownership business law for community pharmacy, risk management and insurance pricing decision for products and services, purchasing and inventory control. Good pharmacy practice development and innovative services. Credit management efficiency computerization of pharmacy.
Communication skills: Nonverbal communication. Patterns of behavior in communication. Questioning and listening skill. Barriers of communication. Confidentially.
Good community pharmacy practice: The requirements of premises/layout. Requirements of equipments, Material, manpower, storage and inventory control, service and documentation.
Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence: History of pharmaceutical legislation, pharmaceutical industry, pharmaceutical education system of Nepal. Study of the following:
- Drugs Act, 2035/1978
- Drug Consultative Council and Drug Advisory Regulation 2037 (1980)
- Drug Registration Regulation 2038 (1981)
- Drug Inspection Regulation 2040 (1983)
- Drug Standard Regulation 2043 (1986)
- Drug Manufacture Codes 2041 (1984)
- Drug Sale and Distribution Codes 2041 (1984)
- Good Manufacturing Practices (Ausadi Utpadan Sangita 2041)
- Pharmacy Council Act (NPC-2057(2000)
- Regulatory provisions for veterinary, ayurvedic and other system of medicines
- Company Act of Nepal Patent Act of Nepal 1970
- National Health Policy
- National Drug Policy 1995 and Consumer Protection Act 2054 (1998).